by Leonard Perry
by Leonard Perry


In extension I serve as an advisor and consultant to the greenhouse and nursery industry, primarily in Vermont but throughout the region and beyond as well.

I give presentations on my research to the industry, and to home groups. In Research, my focus is "herbaceous perennial production systems".

His website is at  Leonards zone of gardening: home with my trials, generally USDA 4a. Campus in Burlington is 5.

October 25, 2015

Fall is a more relaxed time in the garden, but there is still plenty to do. I usually keep busy until snow flies and I can’t see the ground! Tending to and tidying gardens and landscapes now will give you a jump on activities next spring. Here is a checklist of some usual and important fall outdoor projects for gardeners.

Fall is a good time for planting trees, shrubs, bulbs and perennials. Earlier in the fall is best, as it gives them time to form roots and get established before the soil gets too cold and roots stop growing (often when the soil temperature gets down to 40 degrees (F). Spring bulbs should be planted in fall, even if you do so late, rather than try to hold them until next season.

Evergreens, particular wide-leaved ones such as rhododendrons, should be kept well-watered in early to mid fall, particularly if they don’t get an inch or more of rain per week. This is all the water they’ll get until spring, once the ground gets cold and freezes. Without sufficient water, their leaves will dry out and burn, turning brown. Sprays called “anti-dessicants” are sometimes used to help prevent them from drying out in winter, but may not be effective.

As long as your grass is growing, keep it mowed. Then, usually about mid-October with the last mowing, you can lower the mowing height by about a third. This keeps the grass from being too long by spring, more susceptible to snow mold and other diseases.

Canna, gladiolus, dahlias and other summer bulbs should be dug for winter storage, after frost kills the tops. Canna can be stored in pots with soil or compost, gladiolus can be stored dry in paper bags. Dahlias should be allowed to dry, once dug, for only a few hours to a day, or they will begin to shrivel. Then either wrap the dahlia tubers in plastic wrap, or store in slightly moistened peat moss or sawdust. Kept too dry over winter and the tubers will shrivel; kept too wet and they’ll rot.

Fall is not the best time to prune, as wounds won’t heal fully before winter, and so diseases can enter the exposed stems. Do prune if you can’t wait until spring, or if branches are dead, diseased, or damaged. Prune them too if they’re crossing and rubbing other branches.

Fall is a good time to test your soil, particularly for pH if nothing else. This is the soil acidity—responsible for nutrients being available to plants. Generally in our area it can be a bit low, needing the application of lime. Use a slow-acting form (not hydrated) of lime in fall, so the soil will be ready by spring. Wait until spring when plants begin growth to add fertilizer.

Keep leaves raked, particularly from lawns, as they’ll smother grass. They can be left on perennial beds to help provide winter protection, and recycle nutrients back into the soil, but you’ll need to make time to rake them mostly off next spring. You can compost leaves, use them as a mulch around shrubs or, if no place for them and too many, haul to a recycle center where they can use your leaves for making high quality compost.

Clean up dead annuals and vegetables in fall, and rake leaves from under fruiting trees and shrubs. Such “sanitation” removes possible overwintering diseases, and is a good practice for cultural control of diseases.

Fall is a great time to add compost to flower and garden beds, particularly once they’re cleaned up. The compost can work into the soil over winter, and be ready for spring planting. Since compost breaks down in the soil, it needs to be added every year or two. If you add compost yearly, you can merely “topdress” lightly. Otherwise add an inch or two, and scratch into the soil with a tined hoe or gravel rake.

If perennials such as daylilies have gone by and are looking ugly, cut their leaves back to a few inches high. Also, cut back any perennials whose leaves may be diseased, such as phlox with powdery mildew. Dispose of diseased leaves in trash, don’t compost them, as disease spores often will survive. Leave perennials that are upright, attractive, and that have seed heads to provide food for birds.

Most peonies can be left in place for many years, even decades. But if they are too large or need moving, fall is the time to divide them. Dig them up, cut off the stems, then divide the roots into sections. Each section should have at least three “eyes” or growing buds—they’re usually reddish, plump, and quite obvious. Don’t replant peonies too deeply—buds should only be an inch or two deep—or they won’t bloom. Once divided, it make take peonies a year or two before they bloom.

If you have garden beds, fall is a good time to edge them to keep grass from encroaching. You can use edging tools just for this purpose, or a square-tipped spade to cut the edge and hoe to remove any grass. If a small and more formal area, you might consider adding an edging material such as paving stones or flexible upright plastic edging from home supply stores.

If you have special trees, particularly newly planted ones this year, you may need to protect them from deer and rabbit browsing. You can wrap (loosely) tree trunks with hardware cloth screen, or buy special tree trunk wrap at complete garden stores and online. Tree wraps may be white, and may be fabric or plastic. The white reflects light, keeping the tender bark on trunks from sunscald in winter. If sunscald isn’t a concern, you can wrap trunks with black plastic mesh tree guards.

Once you’re done with tools and equipment such as mowers, get them ready for winter. Add stabilizer additives to mower fuel, or drain the fuel so fresh can be added in spring. Clean grass clippings from mower decks. Drain hoses, and store clay pots so they won’t get wet, freeze, and crack. Clean dirt off tools, and oil them so they don’t rust. Now is a good time to sharpen hoes and particularly pruning tools. Many hardware and garden stores have sharpeners for the latter.

Wait until late fall to mulch tender plants such as roses and some perennials. You can mulch sooner if you want to trap some ground heat, keeping soils warmer longer and roots growing later into fall. This may be a good idea for recent plantings. Don’t use straw or leaves around roses and shrubs if you have mice in the area. They’ll make winter homes in this material and chew on plant stems. Compost and soil work better around and over tender plants in such situations.

Don’t forget during these last days in the garden this season to reflect back and make notes on changes, crop rotations, new plants for next year, and what worked and didn’t work out well. If you have plant labels, revisit all your plants one last time and make sure the labels are intact, legible, and don’t need replacing.

Take time to enjoy the fall colors, the weeded beds, your new plantings, and birds in the garden as you put out feeders and heated birdbaths. Check at feed and garden stores for fall sales on high quality bird seed (such as black oil sunflower), and suet, and stock up for winter.

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